Manaus-Manacapuru-T 3

The deployment site, downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil (3° 6' 47" S, 60° 1' 31" W) near Manacapuru, is situated so that it experiences the extremes of (i) a pristine atmosphere when the Manaus pollution plume meanders and (ii) heavy pollution and the interactions of that pollution with the natural environment when the plume regularly intersects the site. The city of Manaus uses high-sulfur oil as its primary source of electricity; the city is also an industrial zone of several million people and has high emissions of soot. Particle number and mass concentrations are 10 to 100 times greater in the pollution plume compared to the times when pristine conditions prevail. The deployment will enable the study of how aerosol and cloud life cycles, including cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions, are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

Aerial view of the T3 site (credit: John Shilling, from G1 aircraft)

Radars at sunset - T3 site (credit: Henrique Barbosa)

Main measurements

  • Carbon Monoxide (CO) dry air mole fraction, Los Gatos ICOS N2O/CO-23D (LGR)
  • Ozone (O3) dry air mole fraction, 49i O3 Analyzer (Thermo)
  • Nitorgen Oxide (NOx) dry air mole fraction, 42i NO-NO2-NOx Analyzer (Thermo)
  • Concentration of Volatile (Organic) Compounds (VOCs), PTR-MS (IONICON)
  • Concentration of non-refractory aerosol particles, HR-ToF-AMS (Aerodyne Research Inc.)
  • Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM), Oxidation flow reactor (OFR)
  • Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCN), (DMT)
  • Concentration of Particles (CN), CPC 3772 (TSi)
  • Concentration of Dust/Particulate Matter (PM), (Quartz filters)
  • Black Carbon mass load (BCe), AE31 (Magge)
  • Diameter of particles (Dp), SMPS (DMA) 3082, 3081 (TSi)
  • Particle Size of aerosols (mass distributions), SP2 (DMT)
  • Light Scattering Coefficient, Nephelometer (TSi)
  • Light Absorption Coefficient, AE31 (Magge)
  • Air Relative Humidity, WXT520 (Vaisala)
  • Air Temperature, WXT520 (Vaisala)
  • Air Pressure, WXT520 (Vaisala)
  • Wind Vector (Direction and Speed), (Vaisala and SODAR)
  • Aerosol Optical Properties, Cimel Sunphotometer (AERONET)

Additional information and other measurements can be found at the link below:


  • Martin, S. T., et al., The Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon2014/5) Observes Pollution Affecting Gases, Aerosols, Clouds, and Rainfall over the Rain Forest, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98, 2017, 981–997, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00221.1.
  • Martin, S. T., Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785-4797, 2016 doi:10.5194/acp-16-4785-2016.
  • de Sá, S. S., et al.: Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611-6629, 2017, 10.5194/acp-17-6611-2017.
  • Thalman, R., et al.: CCN activity and organic hygroscopicity of aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia: seasonal and diel variations and impact of anthropogenic emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779-11801, 2017.

See also: